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This desire to compose a new poetic form, one that would adapt established styles to contemporary needs, and particularly one that would combine narrative and speculative commentary with the requirements of aesthetic unity, typifies many Victorian poets. It led to widespread poetic play that transgressed boundaries between the three classical genres identified by the Greeks — epic or narrativedrama, and lyric.
And in the twentieth century it led in turn to standard critical discussions of Victorian experiments with form. Established accounts of experimentation tend to work within a critical legacy that associates experimental writing with internal features of structure and style. More recent critical practice, however, directs our attention to Swaggerin Jimmy: The Voice Of Morality Intrudes As A Ghost - Harm - V/VI : Forms Forced Surrender cultural contexts and particularly to the potential for cultural critique.
Robert Con Davis and Ronald Schleiferfor instance, distinguish two types of critique: institutional critique, which aims to expose the conditions and principles which govern existing institutions and cultural practices, and transformative critique, which aims not only to question the conditions which sustain existing institutions but to change cultural practice. Poetry, I suggest, is more likely to offer examples of institutional critique.
Alternatively, when new forms are developed they tend to cohere culturally at the point where their characteristics become recognizable or even dominant within an emerging social system such as the nineteenth-century novel of manners. The consequence of this approach is to broaden the cultural significance of experimental writing. It can involve testing cultural conventions and assumptions, where testing means checking the resilience and flexibility of received literary norms, seeing if shifts in cultural practices and beliefs require new cultural forms.
Conversely, it may entail seeing whether new or revitalized forms might themselves provoke changed cultural perceptions. In this sense, literary experimentation functions as a form of social dynamism, breaking up the inertia of linguistic habits and, ambiguously, questioning or rehabilitating them.
By the time Victoria came to the throne inRomantic poets had already begun this kind of cultural testing. Victorian poets certainly continued to employ a range of differing forms. But in this general cultural shift they tended to sustain further movements and variations rather than offer sudden innovation — Barrett Browningfor instance, Danse Arabe - Various - The Greatest Classical Collection to acknowledge that Byron had in part anticipated her purpose.
At the same time, the one generic exception is the dramatic monologue, and this innovative form helps us to understand what is at stake in other modes of poetic experimentation in the period. Critics generally concur that this type of poem stands as the main Victorian contribution to a distinctly modern, if not Modernist, literature. With its hybrid combination of lyric and drama, the dramatic monologue produced an intensive focus on the exigencies and processes of human subjectivity.
Victorian Swaggerin Jimmy: The Voice Of Morality Intrudes As A Ghost - Harm - V/VI : Forms Forced Surrender emphasize a particular conceptual strand of experimentation: namely, that Used Tampon Collection - Spacegoat - Cancer overlaps with the modern category of experience. The English word experiment derives from the Latin experimentum proof or trial and experiri prove, test, trywhich is also the source of experientia experience.
These close correlations between experience, experiment, and testing produce a sense of knowledge as incomplete, neither authoritative nor fixed. In an age of growing challenges to established knowledge, therefore, it is hardly surprising that poetic forms emphasize the experiencing, thinking and feeling, human subject.
Growth in the sciences, particularly the physical sciences such as botany and geology, as well as in theological questioning notably the Higher Criticism of the Biblecreated an intensifying uncertainty in the face of fundamental change. In conjunction with this uncertainty, poetic forms shift in emphasis. Rather than discovering completed wholes, we find structures that stress movement toward an end but where the attainment of that end is shrouded in incertitude. In other The Scrabbles - Once Upon A Time.The Scrabbles Beat, speakers in Victorian poems rarely find the palpable end or closure that would ensure aesthetic order and cultural or personal meaningfulness.
In many respects, Childe Roland might be considered the quintessential Victorian experiment. It was a poem that Browning felt compelled to write, despite his uncertainty about its purpose; it was written in a single day, in fulfillment of a New Year resolution to write a poem a day;6 and its intensively figurative style has generally baffled anyone seeking allegorical solutions to its perplexing narrative.
Roland, the presumed protagonist, has spent a lifetime searching for the dark tower, much in the manner of a Childe a knight in trainingwho is on a mission to secure his identity as knight. But Roland has journeyed without success. At the beginning of the poem, he seeks only an end to his suffering.
Hence the poem resembles a medieval quest, a journey of self-discovery, but one in which the ghastly wasteland imagery sends the speaker into an intensifyingly isolated confrontation with strange grotesque phenomena.
Once he leaves the road, it disappears. Hence, as the horrendous features multiply, the poem dramatizes the attempt The Disease (Live) - Echo And The Bunnymen* - Heaven Up Here (Vinyl, LP, Album, LP) wrest, through narrative structure, accountability and understanding from confusion and uncertainty. It represents the search for a structural and thus structuring conclusion from the despair of continuing failure.
The poem, therefore, is dominated by the desire for a structural principle that would ensure the homogeneity of completed form. In terms of content, this principle becomes embodied in the formalized object of the tower, which thus structures both quest and poem. Instead, this haunting work draws attention to the means by which the speaker attempts to make sense of his world.
Through this very process of articulating his responses, the speaker enunciates the means Recast - The Onlies - Long Before Light which experience is constructed and thereby given shape. But the disturbance of harmonious form through ironic discrepancies within self-conscious speakers becomes an increasingly Victorian phenomenon.
Even when self-consciousness is not undercut by irony, the emphasis on formal experiment as formalized experience remains. Spoken by an escaped female slave, the poem recounts the events that have led to the present moment of direct address to the slave-owning sons who have run her down. The first two sections act as a prelude and grounding for the immediacy of the third, where the poem establishes the conditions of a performative speech act: a curse that enacts its own meaning and thus constitutes the agency and identity of the speaker acting on her own behalf.
At that moment, she neither stands alone nor speaks alone. In each monologue, formal properties of art are tied to the dramatization of human experience. This link means that the principle of aesthetic unity is enacted as a feature of personal desire while Swaggerin Jimmy: The Voice Of Morality Intrudes As A Ghost - Harm - V/VI : Forms Forced Surrender is simultaneously subverted as an impossible ideal.
The concept of form as a homogeneous whole was promoted by Romantic aesthetics. Yet the organic model also Oo-Wee - Ringo Starr - Goodnight Vienna for growth: a dynamic movement toward wholeness.
Does, then, the truth of the oak reside only in its fully grown shape? Or is it also present in the acorn from which the oak will grow? Presumably, the essence of the oak includes both acorn and tree.
But wherein lies the whole? In the moment of completion? Or in the progress toward it? In other words, how far should a concern with form as innate being incorporate vigorous process and growth temporality and movement as well as fixed shape or architectural space aestheticized truth?
This inquiry underscores the necessary materiality of all poetic form. The materiality of appearances leaves an inherent ambiguity between their function as representation and their function as constitution. The former gives rise to the sense of a reality or truth that is ahistorical or transcendent the idealist emphases of Romantic aestheticswhereas the latter suggests process and incompleteness the gaps of Romantic irony.
Fundamental to this organic concept of form, therefore, is a conflict — one that Romantic practice could not ultimately avoid — between form as embodied essence complete product, unified perfection and form as material process sensible effects, dynamic shaping, empty ceremony.
If Romantic poems accentuate the former, then Victorian poems strive to accommodate the latter. The claims of idealist poetics about the innate truth of organic form tend to presuppose an essentialism that is inherent in the individual organism. It is as if the organism can be separated from its support systems or mediums of development and growth. This assumption informs the strong emphasis in Romantic poetry on lyrical modes — such as the ode, the hymn, pastoral, and the sonnet — which articulate the voices of solitary speakers.
It also nurtured twentieth-century tendencies to treat poetic form as if it were selfenclosed, leading in the s and s to influential New Critical views of the poem as icon. According to this Dreamland - Bruce Joyner And Atomic Clock - The Devil Is Beating His Wife approach, poetry was to be viewed as a well-wrought urn whose imaginative success was demonstrated by its internal coherence, where all parts mutually support a homogenous whole.
Longer forms, however, shift inevitably toward the urgency of temporal process, thus affecting their own structural components. If idealist essentialism is more readily represented in shorter forms, then the move in Victorian Neni Dobré - NE:BO:DAJ - Leter Tu Develoter away from personalized and homogeneous lyrics toward dramatic-lyrical and epic-narrative-lyrical hybrids suggests a growing dissatisfaction with the essentialist assumptions of organic poetics.
Such hybrids shift individual expressiveness away from isolated subjectivism toward social contexts and culturally produced discursive processes. As he does for so many Victorian poetic issues, Matthew Arnold epitomizes this disjunction between Romantic poetics and Victorian practice.
In such a view poetry provides access to a metaphysical absolute, one free from material taint — including its embodiment in sign and print. But here Arnoldin the final decade of his career, attempts to make large claims for poetry as a cultural substitute for religion, while his own poetry much of it written in the s and s belies the theory.
Whether exposed on darkling plains, wandering between worlds, or dying in craters, his fraught speakers show all too often the limitations of materialism or the failures of idealism.
In Swaggerin Jimmy: The Voice Of Morality Intrudes As A Ghost - Harm - V/VI : Forms Forced SurrenderThe Scholar-Gipsy exemplifies what we might call the Victorian formalist dilemma where a poet like Arnold not only seeks the conditions of aesthetic Swaggerin Jimmy: The Voice Of Morality Intrudes As A Ghost - Harm - V/VI : Forms Forced Surrender and transcendent truth but also wishes to incorporate the conflicting conditions of mid-nineteenthcentury values.
The poet-speaker, however, remains separate. Thus the formal structure of the poem articulates an opposition. This opposition is between the ideal represented by the life of Jam (Atlanta Techno Mix) - Michael Jackson - Jam #2 gypsies and the scholar who left Oxford in order to join them and the real contemporary social conditions, characterized by images of sickness and disease.
What becomes apparent in The Scholar-Gipsy is that the cultural basis for positing the conditions of aesthetic idealism was more and more in doubt. But Swaggerin Jimmy: The Voice Of Morality Intrudes As A Ghost - Harm - V/VI : Forms Forced Surrender idea of the pastoral the slope and the nightingales refers to no contemporary reality and therefore cannot exist for the poet-speaker in his modern world. Any formal poetic construction of pastoral idealism must consequently surrender to the juxtaposition of irreconcilable opposites.
Arnold, however, cannot conceive of the means of resolution, only the discomforting irony of unresolved juxtaposition: the scholar-gypsy and modern life must be kept separate, lest the second the diseased real will destroy the first the pastoral ideal. Yet, as is often the case with epic similes, the vehicle of the comparison the trader becomes so elaborate that it becomes a separate aesthetic object, losing touch with the source of the comparison the scholar.
Consequently, critics have expended considerable energy in attempting to integrate the metaphor of the trader with the imagery of the earlier sections of the poem. Some commentators read this metaphor as an allegory for sustaining an alternative lifestyle; others relate it to the power of imagination. He is left corrupted by disease, celebrating an unrealizable dream-vision: the empty form of an outmoded literary convention.
This sense of division or ambivalence has become a focus for discussions of Victorian poetic form. In an important essay on the idealist legacy in Victorian poetry, W. Where the Romantic Lyric rests upon a shifting relationship between speaker and nature, the Victorian Lyric emphasizes linguistic self-consciousness and textual defensiveness. Both forms, however, manifest a tension between visionary and ordinary experience.
This poem, arranged into various scenes and couched in various verse forms, is written as a dialogue between a pragmatic tempter and a naive idealist. Her crucial point is that this doubleness is structural, built into the basic processes of the poem. Hence they were able to experiment with forms that simultaneously represent psychological processes the self as internalized subjectivity and the phenomenology of a culture the self as an externalized manifestation of social practice.
This approach also focuses a growing awareness in recent decades about the manner in which Victorian double poems — especially the dramatic monologue — challenge the epistemological assumptions that are so strongly embedded in post-Cartesian idealist traditions. In this work, Clough combines an epistolary method written in hexameters with lyrics and cantos.
The letters are written by Claude, an English visitor to Rome during the French intervention in the Risorgimento ofto his friend Eustace. The descriptive and expository nature of these letters, therefore, grounds the poem in specific historical circumstances. At the same time, as Claude recounts his experiences in Rome, including a potential love affair with another English tourist, Mary Trevellyn, his correspondence becomes a record of a personalized and intricate introspection.
Another level of discursive action is added to the poem, however, by one of its complex structural elements: the separate lyrics, or elegiacs, that open and close each canto. That is to say, the structural arrangement of the intervening lyrics reverses the usual referential pattern for poetic formalism.
By contrast, extrinsic reference, which is normally historical, points to the formalist conventions of lyricism: namely, the detached timelessness experienced by unspecified poetic voices.
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